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@hyperjump/json-schema-core v0.14.1

A framework for building JSON Schema tools

Hyperjump - JSON Schema Core

JSON Schema Core (JSC) is a framework for building JSON Schema based validators and other tools.

It includes tools for:

  • Working with schemas ($id, $schema, $ref, etc)
  • Working with instances
  • Building custom keywords
  • Building vocabularies
  • Standard output formats

Install

JSC is designed to run in a vanilla node.js environment, but has no dependencies on node.js specific libraries so it can be bundled for the browser. No compilers, preprocessors, or bundlers are used.

Node.js

npm install @hyperjump/json-schema-core

Browser

When in a browser context, JSC is designed to use the browser's fetch implementation instead of a node.js fetch clone. The Webpack bundler does this properly without any extra configuration, but if you are using the Rollup bundler you will need to include the browser: true option in your Rollup configuration.

  plugins: [
    resolve({
      browser: true
    }),
    commonjs()
  ]

Schema

A Schema Document (SDoc) is a structure that includes the schema, the id, and a JSON Pointer. The "value" of an SDoc is the portion of the schema that the JSON pointer points to. This allows an SDoc to represent any value in the schema while maintaining enough context to follow $refs and track the position in the document.

  • Schema.setConfig: (schemaVersion: string, configName: string, configValue: string) => any

    Set a configuration value for a schemaVersion.

  • Schema.add: (schema: object, url?: URI, schemaVersion?: string) => undefined

    Load a schema. See the "$id" and "$schema" sections for more details

  • Schema.get: (url: URI, contextDoc?: SDoc, recursive: boolean = false) => Promise

    Fetch a schema. Schemas can come from an HTTP request, a file, or a schema that was added with Schema.add.

  • Schema.uri: (doc: SDoc) => URI

    Returns a URI including the id and JSON Pointer that represents a value within the schema.

  • Schema.value: (doc: SDoc) => any

    The portion of the schema the document's JSON Pointer points to.

  • Schema.typeOf: (doc: SDoc, type: string) => boolean

    Determines if the JSON type of the given doc matches the given type

  • Schema.has: (key: string, doc: SDoc) => Promise

    Similar to key in schema.

  • Schema.step: (key: string, doc: SDoc) => Promise

    Similar to schema[key], but returns an SDoc.

  • Schema.sibling: (key: string, doc: SDoc) => Promise

    Similar to Schema.step, but gets an adjacent key.

  • Schema.entries: (doc: SDoc) => Promise<[[string, SDoc]]>

    Similar to Object.entries, but returns SDocs for values.

  • Schema.keys: (doc: SDoc) => [string]

    Similar to Object.keys.

  • Schema.map: (fn: (item: Promise, index: integer) => T, doc: SDoc) => Promise<[T]>

    A map function for an SDoc whose value is an array.

  • Schema.length: (doc: SDoc) => number

    Similar to Array.prototype.length.

$id

JSC requires that all schemas are identified by at least one URI. There are two types of schema identifiers, internal and external. An internal identifier is an identifier that is specified within the schema using $id. An external identifier is an identifier that is specified outside of the schema. In JSC, an external identifier can be either the URL a schema is retrieved with, or the identifier specified when using Schema.add to load a schema.

JSC can fetch schemas from the web or from the file system, but when fetching from the file system, there are limitations for security reasons. If your schema has an identifier with an http scheme (http://example.com), it's not allowed to reference schemas with a file scheme (file:///path/to/my/schemas).

Internal identifiers ($ids) are resolved against the external identifier of the schema (if one exists) and the resulting URI is used to identify the schema. All identifiers must be absolute URIs. External identifiers are required to be absolute URIs and internal identifiers must resolve to absolute URIs.

const { JsonSchema, Schema } = require("@hyperjump/json-schema-core");


// Example: Inline schema with external identifier
const schemaJson = {
  "$schema": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
  "type": "string"
}
Schema.add(schemaJson, "http://example.com/schemas/string");
const schema = await Schema.get("http://example.com/schemas/string");

// Example: Inline schema with internal identifier
const schemaJson = {
  "$schema": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
  "$id": "http://example.com/schemas/string",
  "type": "string"
}
Schema.add(schemaJson);
const schema = await Schema.get("http://example.com/schemas/string");

// Example: Inline schema with no identifier
const schemaJson = {
  "$schema": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
  "type": "string"
}
Schema.add(schemaJson); // Error: Couldn't determine an identifier for the schema

// Given the following schema at http://example.com/schemas/foo
// {
//  "$schema": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
//  "$id": "http://example.com/schemas/string",
//  "type": "string"
// }

// Example: Fetch schema from external HTTP identifier
const schema = await Schema.get("http://example.com/schemas/string");

// Example: Fetch schema from internal identifier
const schema = await Schema.get("http://example.com/schemas/foo");

// Given the following schema at http://example.com/schemas/bar
// {
//  "$schema": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
//  "$id": "string",
//  "type": "string"
// }

// Example: Fetch schema from internal identifier resolved against external identifier
const schema = await Schema.get("http://example.com/schemas/string");

// Given the following schema at /path/to/my/schemas/string.schema.json
// {
//  "$schema": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
//  "type": "string"
// }

// Example: Fetch schema from external FILE identifier
const schema = await Schema.get("file:///path/to/my/schemas/string.schema.json");

// Given the following schema at /path/to/my/schemas/string.schema.json
// {
//  "$schema": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
//  "type": "string"
// }
//
// Given the following schema at http://example.com/schemas/baz
// {
//  "$schema": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
//  "$ref": "file:///path/to/my/schemas/string.schema.json"
// }

// Example: Reference file from network context
const schema = await Schema.get("http://example.com/schemas/baz");
const validateString = await JsonSchema.validate(schema); // Error: Can't access file resource from network context

$schema

JSC is designed to support multiple drafts of JSON Schema and it makes no assumption about what draft your schema uses. You need to specify it in some way. The preferred way is to the use $schema in all of your schemas, but you can also specify what draft to use when adding a schema using Schema.add. If a draft is specified in Schema.add and the schema has a $schema, the $schema will be used. If no draft is specified, you will get an error.

// Example: Internal schema version
const schemaJSON = {
  "$schema": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
  "$id": "http://example.com/schemas/string",
  "type": "string"
};
Schema.add(schemaJSON);

// Example: External schema version
const schemaJSON = {
  "type": "string"
};
Schema.add(schemaJSON, "http://example.com/schemas/string", "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema");

// Example: No schema version
const schemaJSON = {
  "$id": "http://example.com/schemas/string",
  "type": "string"
};
Schema.add(schemaJSON); // Error: Couldn't determine schema version

// Given the following schema at http://example.com/schemas/foo
// {
//   "type": "string"
// }

// Example: No schema version external
const schema = Schema.get("http://example.com/schemas/string"); // Error: Couldn't determine schema version

Meta Validation

By default JSC will validate all schemas against their meta-schema. However, the only time you really need this is when developing schemas. When JSV is running in a production environment or you are working with third-party schemas that you trust to be correct, you can turn off meta-validation to boost performance.

JsonSchema.setShouldMetaValidate(false);

const schema = await Schema.get("http://example.com/schemas/foo");
const isString = await JsonSchema.validate(schema);
isString("foo"); // true

Instance

An Instance Document (IDoc) is like a Schema Document (SDoc) except with much more limited functionality.

  • Instance.cons: (instance: any) => IDoc

    Construct a IDoc from a value.

  • Instance.get: (url: URI, contextDoc: IDoc) => IDoc

    Apply a same-resource reference to a IDoc.

  • Instance.uri: (doc: IDoc) => URI

    Returns a URI including the id and JSON Pointer that represents a value within the instance.

  • Instance.value: (doc: IDoc) => any

    The portion of the instance that the document's JSON Pointer points to.

  • Instance.typeOf: (doc: IDoc, type: string) => boolean

    Determines if the JSON type of the given doc matches the given type.

  • Instance.step: (key: string, doc: IDoc) => IDoc

    Similar to schema[key], but returns a IDoc.

  • Instance.entries: (doc: IDoc) => [string, IDoc]

    Similar to Object.entries, but returns IDocs for values.

  • Instance.keys: (doc: IDoc) => [string]

    Similar to Object.keys.

  • Instance.map: (fn: (item: IDoc, index: integer) => T, doc: IDoc) => [T]

    A map function for a IDoc whose value is an array.

  • Instance.reduce: (fn: (accumulator: T, item: IDoc, index: integer) => T, initial: T, doc: IDoc) => T

    A reduce function for a IDoc whose value is an array.

  • Instance.every: (fn: (doc: IDoc, index: integer) => boolean, doc: IDoc) => boolean

    An every function for a IDoc whose value is an array.

  • Instance.some: (fn: (doc: IDoc, index: integer) => boolean, doc: IDoc) => boolean

    A some function for a IDoc whose value is an array.

  • Instance.length: (doc: IDoc) => number

    Similar to Array.prototype.length.

Output

JSC supports all of the standard output formats specified for JSON Schema draft-2019-09 and is separately configurable for instance validation and meta-validtion.

  • JsonSchema.FLAG - Default for instance validation
  • JsonSchema.BASIC
  • JsonSchema.DETAILED - Default for meta-validation
  • JsonSchema.VERBOSE

This implementation does not include the suggested keywordLocation property in the output unit. I think absoluteKeywordLocation+instanceLocation is sufficient for debugging and it's awkward for the output to produce JSON Pointers that potentially won't resolve because they cross schema boundaries.

This implementation includes an extra property in the output unit called keyword. This is an identifier (URI) for the keyword that was validated. With the standard output unit fields, we can see what keyword was validated by inspecting the last segment of the absoluteKeywordLocation property. But, since JSC can support multiple JSON Schema versions, we would have to pull up the actual schema to find what draft was used. The schema property gives us enough information to not have to go back to the schema to know what draft is being used.

const { JsonSchema, Schema } = require("@hyperjump/json-schema-core");


// Example: Specify instance validation output format
Schema.add({
  "$schema": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
  "$id": "http://example.com/schemas/string",
  "type": "string"
});
const schema = await Schema.get("http://example.com/schemas/string");
const isString = await JsonSchema.validate(schema);
const output = isString(42, JsonSchema.BASIC); // => {
//   "keyword": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
//   "absoluteKeywordLocation": "http://example.com/schemas/string#",
//   "instanceLocation": "#",
//   "valid": false,
//   "errors": [
//     {
//       "keyword": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema#type",
//       "absoluteKeywordLocation": "http://example.com/schemas/string#/type",
//       "instanceLocation": "#",
//       "valid": false
//     }
//   ]
// }

// Example: Specify meta-validation output format
Schema.add({
  "$schema": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
  "$id": "http://example.com/schemas/foo",
  "type": "this-is-not-a-valid-type"
});
JsonSchema.setMetaOutputFormat(JsonSchema.BASIC);
const schema = await Schema.get("http://example.com/schemas/foo");
const isString = await JsonSchema.validate(schema); // InvalidSchemaError: {
//   "keyword": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
//   "absoluteKeywordLocation": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema#",
//   "instanceLocation": "#",
//   "valid": false,
//   "errors": [
//     {
//       "keyword": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema#allOf",
//       "absoluteKeywordLocation": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema#/allOf",
//       "instanceLocation": "#",
//       "valid": false
//     }
//     ...
//   ]
// }

PubSub

JSC emits events that you can subscribe to and work with however your application needs. For now, the only event is the "result" event that emits output units every time a keyword is validated. Internally, JSC uses these events to build standard output formats. Other events can be added when use-cases are identified for them.

const PubSub = require("pubsub-js");
const { JsonSchema, Schema } = require("@hyperjump/json-schema-core");


Schema.add({
  "$schema": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
  "$id": "http://example.com/schemas/string",
  "type": "string"
});
const schema = await Schema.get("http://example.com/schemas/string");
const isString = await JsonSchema.validate(schema);

const results = [];
const subscriptionToken = PubSub.subscribe("result", (message, result) => {
  results.push(result);
});
isString(42);
PubSub.unsubscribe(subscriptionToken);
results; // => [
//   {
//     "keyword": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
//     "absoluteKeywordLocation": "http://example.com/schemas/string#",
//     "instanceLocation": "#",
//     "valid": false
//   },
//   {
//     "keyword": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema#type",
//     "absoluteKeywordLocation": "http://example.com/schemas/string#/type",
//     "instanceLocation": "#",
//     "valid": false
//   }
// ]

Customize

JSC uses a micro-kernel architecture, so it's highly customizable. Everything is a plugin, even the validation logic is a plugin. So, in theory, you can use JSC as a framework for building other types of JSON Schema based tools such as code generators or form generators.

In addition to this documentation you should be able to look at the JSV code to see an example of how to add your custom plugins because it's all implemented the same way.

References

The $ref keyword has changed a couple times over the last several drafts. JSC allows you to configure which version(s) of $refs you want to support. There are several types of references.

  • JSON Reference: (draft-04/06/07) In draft-04, references were defined in a separate spec from JSON Schema. The JSON Schema spec only constrained $ref in how URIs are resolved with respect to id. Then in draft-06/07, JSON Schema absorbed the JSON Reference spec and further constrained $ref to only be allowed where schemas are allowed. JSC doesn't support this constraint because it can't be done in a keyword agnostic way.

  • JSON Schema Reference: (draft-2019-09) In draft 2019-09, a reference was changed from being an object with a $ref property to the value of a $ref keyword. This allowed $ref to behave more like a keyword.

  • Dynamic JSON Schema Reference: (draft-2019-09) In draft 2019-09, the concept of a dynamic scope reference was added to make it easier to extend recursive schemas. This was added to support building custom meta-schemas.

References can be configured by $schema identifier. When you create a custom meta-schema, you will need to configure which types of references your schema version supports. You do this with Schema.setConfig.

const { Schema } = require("@hyperjump/json-schema-core");


// Configure draft-2019-09 style references
Schema.setConfig("https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema", "jsrefToken", "$ref");
Schema.setConfig("https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema", "dynamicJsrefToken", "$recursiveRef");

// Configure draft-04/6/7 style references
Schema.setConfig("http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema", "jrefToken", "$ref");

Identifiers

The $id keyword has seen it's fair share of churn as well. Although the spec around this keyword was rewritten an clarified many times, the vast majority of changes have simply been name changes. JSC allows you to configure which version you want to support.

  • id: (draft-04) A base URI used to resolve reference URIs.

  • $id: (draft-06/07) Same as id, just a different name.

  • $id: (draft-2019-09) Same as $id except with same-document reference support split out into $anchor.

  • $anchor: (draft-2019-09) Same-document reference.

  • $recursiveAnchor: (draft-2019-09) Dynamic scope same-document reference. Value is a boolean that is only allowed at the root of a schema.

  • $dynamicAnchor: (draft-2019-09) Dynamic scope same-document reference. Value is a string and works like $anchor.

In draft-2019-09, $id was redefined from being a resolution scope modifier to being an inlined reference. This means that JSON Pointers can not cross into schemas with $ids. So far, JSC only supports these bounded $ids. If I come up with a way to relax this constraint for old draft implementations, I will, but since there is no sensible reason to want such a thing, it's a low priority.

In JSON Schema, properties called $id are only considered identifiers if they appear in a schema. JSC is keyword agnostic, so it doesn't know what is a schema and what isn't. Therefore, an $id might be treated as an identifier in places it's not expected to. This is unlikely, but not impossible.

const { Schema } = require("@hyperjump/json-schema-core");


// Configure draft-2019-09 style identifiers
Schema.setConfig("https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema", "baseToken", "$id");
Schema.setConfig("https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema", "embeddedToken", "$id");
Schema.setConfig("https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema", "anchorToken", "$anchor");
Schema.setConfig("https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema", "recursiveAnchorToken", "$recursiveAnchor");

// Configure draft-06/7 style references
Schema.setConfig("http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema", "baseToken", "$id");
Schema.setConfig("http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema", "embeddedToken", "$id");
Schema.setConfig("http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema", "anchorToken", "$id");

// Configure draft-04 style references
Schema.setConfig("http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema", "baseToken", "id");
Schema.setConfig("http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema", "embeddedToken", "id");
Schema.setConfig("http://json-schema.org/draft-04/schema", "anchorToken", "id");

Custom Meta-Schemas

Let's say you want to use a custom meta-schema that does stricter validation than the standard meta-schema. Once you have your custom meta-schema ready, it's just a couple lines of code to start using it.

const { JsonSchema, Schema } = require("@hyperjump/json-schema-core");


// Optional: Load your meta-schema. If you don't do this, JSC will fetch it
// using it's identifier when it's needed.
Schema.add({
  "$id": "https://example.com/draft/2019-09-strict/schema",
  "$schema": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
  "$vocabulary": {
    "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/vocab/core": true,
    "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/vocab/applicator": true,
    "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/vocab/validation": true,
    "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/vocab/meta-data": true,
    "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/vocab/format": false,
    "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/vocab/content": true
  },
  ...
});

// Use the URI you chose for your meta-schema for the `$schema` in you schemas.
Schema.add({
  "$id": "http://example.com/schemas/string",
  "$schema": "http://example.com/draft/2019-09-strict/schema",
  "type": "string"
});
const schema = await Schema.get("http://example.com/schemas/string");
await JsonSchema.validate(schema, "foo");

Keywords

A keyword implementation is a module with two functions: compile and interpret. In the compile step, you can do any processing steps necessary to do the actual validation in the interpret step. The most common things to do in the compile step is to follow references and compile sub-schemas. The interpret step takes the result of the compile step and returns a boolean value indicating whether validation has passed or failed. You can Use the JSON Schema Validator (JSV) keyword implementations in this package as examples.

This example implements an if/then/else-like keyword called cond. cond is an array of schemas where the first is the if schema, the second is the then schema, and the third is the else schema.

const { JsonSchema, Schema, Keywords } = require("@hyperjump/json-schema-core");


const cond = {
  compile: async (cond, ast) => {
    const schemas = Schema.map((schema) => JsonSchema.compileSchema(schema, ast), cond);
    return Promise.all(schemas);
  },

  interpret: (cond, instance, ast) => {
    return JsonSchema.interpretSchema(cond[0], instance, ast)
      ? (cond[1] ? JsonSchema.interpretSchema(cond[1], instance, ast) : true)
      : (cond[2] ? JsonSchema.interpretSchema(cond[2], instance, ast) : true);
  }
});

In order to use an keyword in an implementation, you need to add it to a vocabulary.

Vocabularies

A vocabulary is just a named collection of keywords.

const { JsonSchema, Schema } = require("@hyperjump/json-schema-core");
const cond = require("./keywords/cond.js");


// Choose a URI for your vocabulary and add keywords
JsonSchema.defineVocabulary("https://example.com/draft/custom/vocab/conditionals", {
  cond: cond
});

// Create a new meta-schema an add your vocabulary to `$vocabulary`
Schema.add({
  "$id": "https://example.com/draft/custom/schema",
  "$schema": "https://json-schema.org/draft/2019-09/schema",
  "$vocabulary": {
    ...
    "https://example.com/draft/custom/vocab/conditionals": true
  },
  ...
});

// Try it out
Schema.add({
  "$id": "http://example.com/schemas/cond-example",
  "$schema": "https://example.com/draft/custom/schema",
  "type": "integer",
  "cond": [
    { "minimum": 10 },
    { "multipleOf": 3 },
    { "multipleOf": 2 }
  ]
});
const schema = await Schema.get("http://example.com/schemas/cond-example");
await JsonSchema.validate(schema, 42);

Contributing

Tests

Run the tests

npm test

Run the tests with a continuous test runner

npm test -- --watch
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