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const { MultiRange, multirange } = require('multi-integer-range'); // Just a nice shorthand for you const mr = value => multirange(value, { parseUnbounded: true, parseNegative: true }); // Basic manipulation const range = mr('1-5, 9, 8') .append(10) .subtract(1); console.log(range.toString()); // Iterator & array spread console.log(['(-103)-(-100), 101-103')]);

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multi-integer-range v4.0.8

Parses and manipulates multiple comma-separated integer ranges (eg 1-3,8-10)


Build Status Coverage Status npm version

A small library which parses and manipulates comma-delimited integer ranges (such as 1-3,8-10), which are typically used in print dialogs to indicate which pages to print.

Supported operations:

  • Addition (e.g., 1-2,6 + 3-5 => 1-6)
  • Subtraction (e.g., 1-10 - 5-9 => 1-4,10)
  • Inclusion check (e.g., 3,7-9 is in 1-10)
  • Intersection (e.g., 1-52-8 => 2-5)
  • Unbounded ranges (e.g., 5- to mean "all integers >= 5") (optional)
  • Ranges including negative integers or zero
  • ES6 iterator (for ... of, spread operator)
  • Array creation ("flatten")

Internal data are always sorted and normalized to the smallest possible representation.



Install via npm or yarn: npm install multi-integer-range

This library has no external dependencies, and can be used with module bundlers such as Webpack.

Basic Example

import MultiRange from 'multi-integer-range';
// OR:
// const MultiRange = require('multi-integer-range').MultiRange;
// const MultiRange = require('multi-integer-range').default;

const pages = new MultiRange('1-5,12-15');
  .append([7, 8])
console.log(pages.toString()); // '1,3-15'
console.log(pages.has('5,9,12-14')); // true

console.log(pages.toArray()); // [1, 3, 4, 5, ... , 15]
console.log(pages.getRanges()); // [[1, 1], [3, 15]]
console.log(pages.segmentLength()); // 2


Some methods and the constructor take one Initializer parameter. An initializer is one of the following:

  • a valid string (e.g., '1-3,5')
  • an array of integers (e.g., [1, 2, 3, 5])
  • an array of [min, max] tuples (e.g., [[1, 3], [5, 5]])
  • mixture of integers and tuples (e.g., [[1, 3], 5])
  • a single integer (e.g., 1)
  • another MultiRange instance

Pass it to the constructor to create a MultiRange object, or pass nothing to create an empty MultiRange object. A shorthand constructor function multirange() is also available, which you can use according to your preference.

type Initializer = string | number | MultiRange | (number | [number, number])[];
import MultiRange, { multirange } from 'multi-integer-range';

const mr1 = new MultiRange([7, 2, 9, 1, 8, 3]);
const mr2 = new MultiRange('1-2, 3, 7-9');
const mr3 = new MultiRange([[1, 3], [7, 9]]);
const mr4 = new MultiRange(mr1); // clone
const mr5 = multirange('1,2,3,7,8,9');

These five instances (mr1-mr5) hold identical range data because internal data are always normalized.

The string parser is permissive and accepts space characters before/after comma/hyphens. Order is not important either, and overlapped numbers are silently ignored.

const mr = new MultiRange('3,\t8-3,2,3,\n10, 9 - 7 ');
console.log(mr.toString()); // prints '2-10'


Manipulation methods are mutable and chainable by design. That is, for example, when you call append(5), it will change the internal representation and return the modified self, rather than returning a new instance. To get a copy of the instance, use clone(), or alternatively the copy constructor (var copy = new MultiRange(orig)).

  • new MultiRange(data?: Initializer, options?) Creates a new MultiRange object. The options object modifies the parsing behavior (see below).
  • clone(): MultiRange Clones this instance.
  • append(value: Initializer): MultiRange Appends value to this instance.
  • subtract(value: Initializer): MultiRange Subtracts value from this instance.
  • intersect(value: Initializer): MultiRange Removes integers which are not included in value (aka intersection).
  • has(value: Initializer): boolean Checks if the instance contains value.
  • length(): number Calculates how many numbers are effectively included in this instance (ie, 5 for '3,5-7,9'). Returns Inifnity for an unbounded range.
  • segmentLength(): number Returns the number of range segments (ie, 3 for '3,5-7,9' and 0 for an empty range)
  • equals(cmp: Initializer): boolean Checks if two MultiRange data are identical.
  • isUnbounded(): boolean Returns if the instance is unbounded.
  • min(): number | undefined Returns the minimum integer. May return -Infinity.
  • max(): number | undefined Returns the maxinum integer. May return Infinity.
  • shift(): number | undefined Removes the minimum integer and returns it.
  • pop(): number | undefined Removes the maxinum integer and returns it.
  • toString(): string Returns the string respresentation of this MultiRange.
  • getRanges(): [number, number][] Exports the whole range data as an array of [number, number] tuples.
  • toArray(): number[] Builds an array of integer which holds all integers in this MultiRange. This may be slow and memory-consuming for large ranges such as '1-10000'.
  • getIterator(): Object Returns an ES6-compatible iterator. See the description below.

Available options that can be passed to the constructor:

  • parseNegative (boolean, default = false): Enables parsing negative ranges (e.g., (-10)-(-3)).
  • parseUnbounded (boolean, default = false): Enables parsing unbounded ranges (e.g., -5,10-).

Unbounded Ranges (optional)

You can use unbounded (aka infinite) ranges. Parsing unbounded ranges is disabled by default, and you have to enable it via the parseUnbounded option parameter.

// The `parseUnbounded` option enables unbounded ranges.
const unbounded = value => multirange(value, { parseUnbounded: true });

const range1 = unbounded('5-'); // all integers >= 5
const range2 = unbounded('-3'); // all integers <= 3
const range3 = unbounded('-'); // all integers

// Or use the JavaScript constant `Infinity`
// to programmatically create unbounded ranges.
const range4 = multirange([[5, Infinity]]); // all integers >= 5
const range5 = multirange([[-Infinity, 3]]); // all integers <= 3
const range6 = multirange([[-Infinity, Infinity]]); // all integers

Note that the parseUnbounded option only affects the way string initializers are parsed. You do not have to pass any option to create unbounded ranges using non-string initializers. Once parseUnbounded is enabled at the constructor, subsequent chained methods will also correctly parse unbounded ranges.

The manipulation methods work just as expected with unbounded ranges:

const unbounded = value => multirange(value, { parseUnbounded: true });

// Chained methods recognize unbounded ranges, too
console.log(unbounded('5-10,15-').append('0,11-14') + ''); // '0,5-'
console.log(unbounded('-').subtract('3-5,7,11-') + ''); // '-2,6,8-10'
console.log(unbounded('-5,10-').has('-3,20')); // true

// Intersection is especially useful to "trim" any unbounded ranges:
const userInput = '-10,15-20,90-';
const pagesInMyDoc = [[1, 100]]; // '1-100'
const pagesToPrint = unbounded(userInput).intersect(pagesInMyDoc);
console.log(pagesToPrint.toString()); // prints '1-10,15-20,90-100'

Unbounded ranges cannot be iterated over, and you cannot call toArray() for obvious reasons. Calling length() for unbounded ranges will return Infinity.

Ranges Containing Zero and Negative Integers

You can safely handle ranges containing zero and negative integers, including -Infinity.

The syntax for denoting negative integers in a string initializer is a bit tricky, though; you need to always contain all negative integers in parentheses. You also need to pass parseNegative option to make the parser recognize negative integers contained in parentheses.

const mr1 = new MultiRange('(-5),(-1)-0', { parseNegative: true }); // -5, -1 and 0
mr1.append([[-4, -2]]); // -4 to -2
console.log(mr1 + ''); // prints '(-5)-0'

Note that the parseNegative option only affects the way string initializers are parsed. You do not have to pass any option to create negative ranges using non-string initializers.

Once parseNegative is enabled at the constructor, subsequent chained methods will also recognize and parse negative ranges.

const mr2 = multirange('(-5)', { parseNegative: true }).append('(-3)');
console.log(mr2); // prints '(-5),(-3)'


ES2015 (ES6) iterator: If Symbol.iterator is defined (either natively or by a polyfill), you can simply iterate over the instance like this:

for (const page of multirange('2,5-7')) {
} // prints 2, 5, 6 and 7

// Instead of calling toArray() ...
const arr = [...multirange('2,5-7')]; // array spreading
// arr becomes [2, 5, 6, 7]

If Symbol.iterator is not available, you can still access the iterator implementation and use it manually like this:

var it = multirange('2,5-7').getIterator(),
while (!(page = {

TypeScript Definition File

A TypeScript definition file (*.d.ts) is included in this package.

The definition file only contains declarations that are compatible with ES5. If your TypeScript project needs support for iterators (e.g., for ... of or [...multirange('1-5')]), add the following snippet somewhere in your project to avoid compile-time errors.

declare module 'multi-integer-range' {
  interface MultiRange {
    [Symbol.iterator](): Iterator<number>;

In addition, if your project is --target es5, you'll need a polyfill for symbols, --downlevelIteration compile option (available since TS 2.3), plus --lib es2015.iterable compile option. If these bother you, you can always manually use getIterator() as described above.




Performance Considerations: This library works efficiently for large ranges as long as they're mostly continuous (e.g., 1-10240000,20480000-50960000). However, this library is not intended to be efficient with a heavily fragmentated set of integers which are scarcely continuous (e.g., random 10000 integers between 1 to 1000000).

No Integer Type Checks: Make sure you are not passing floating-point numbers to this library. For example, don't do new MultiRange(0.5);. For performance reasons, the library does not check if a passed number is an integer. Passing a float will result in an unexpected and unrecoverable behavior.


Building and Testing

npm install
npm run build
npm test


Please report any bugs and suggestions using GitHub issues.


Soichiro Miki (




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